The science of expertise : behavioral, neural, and genetic approaches to complex skill

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The science of expertise : behavioral, neural, and genetic approaches to complex skill
9781315113371, 1315113376, 9781351624848, 1351624849

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Table of contents :
The science of expertise- Front Cover
The science of expertise
Title page
Copyright Page
Contents
Contributors
Foreword
Acknowledgements
Chapter 1: Introduction: A Brief History of the Science of Expertise and Overview of the Book
The Science of Expertise: A Brief History
Overview of this Book
Moving Ahead
References
PART I:
Behavioral Approach
Chapter 2: Primer – Statistical Methods in the Study of Expertise
Introduction
Statistical Concerns for Research on Expertise
Conclusion
Notes
References
Chapter 3: Cognitive Processes in Chess
Introduction
Development of Chess Expertise
Cognitive Processes in Chess Expertise
Transfer and Individual Differences
A New Model of Chess Expertise
Conclusions and Future Directions
Notes
References
Chapter 4: An Investigation of Problem-Solving Expertise
Introduction
Expert Performance
Process Analysis
Exploring Expert Flexibility
Theoretical Linkages
Summary and Conclusion
Acknowledgements
Note
References
Chapter 5: How Important Is Intelligence in the Development of
Professional Expertise? Combining Prospective and
Retrospective Longitudinal Data Provides an Answer
Introduction
Prospective Longitudinal Data
Retrospective Longitudinal Data
Discussion
More Talent Matters: So Why the Belief in an Ability Threshold?
Limitations
Beyond Born Versus Made: The Science of Professional Expertise
Notes
References
Chapter 6: The Link Between Child Prodigies and Autism
Introduction
Shared Cognitive and Behavioral Traits
Next Frontier
Conclusions
References
Chapter 7: Why Deliberate Practice Is Not Enough: Evidence of
Talent in Drawing
Introduction
Does Drawing Precocity Exist?
Typical Characteristics of Precocious Drawings
The Compulsion to Draw
Precocious Drawers Are Not Just Ahead, They Are Different
Potential Biological Markers of Drawing Talent
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
Note
References
Chapter 8: The Development of Expertise in the Visual Arts
Introduction
Similarities and Differences Between Expert Artistic Perception and Production
Cognitive and Perceptual Correlates of Observational Drawing Expertise
The Role of Personality, Approaches to Learning,and Practice
Conclusions and Suggestions for Further Research
References
Chapter 9: The Deliberate Practice View: An Evaluation of
Definitions, Claims, and Empirical Evidence
Introduction
Empirical Tests of the Deliberate Practice View
Ericsson’s Response
Other Claims of the Deliberate Practice View
Summary and Conclusions
Note
References
PART II:
Neural Approach
Chapter 10: Primer – Neural Approaches in Research on Expertise
Introduction
Neuro-Imaging Techniques to Scrutinize the Brain
How to Use These Neuro-Imaging Techniques
Interpreting Cerebral Patterns
Conclusion
Note
References
Chapter 11: The Neural Underpinnings of Expertise in Games
Introduction
The Expertise Approach
Cognitive Mechanisms of (Board) Game Expertise
Neural Underpinnings of Expertise in (Board) Games
Conclusion
Acknowledgement
Note
References
Chapter 12: The Neural Underpinnings of Perceptual Expertise
Introduction
Where in the Brain Do We Find Perceptual Expertise Effects?
What Causes Certain Brain Regions to Become Selective for Objects of Expertise?
What Differences Between Experts and Novices Account for the Neural Correlates of Expertise?
Future Directions
References
Chapter 13: The Neuroscience of Motor Expertise in Real-World Tasks
Introduction
A Short Summary of the Motor System
The Challenge of Investigating Motor Expertise in an fMRI Scanner
Structural (Anatomical) Neuroplasticity
Functional Neuroplasticity
Implications and Further Questions
Conclusions
References
PART III:
Genetic Approach
Chapter 14: Primer – Theoretical Concepts in the Genetics of Expertise
Introduction
Estimation and Interpretation of Genetic Influences
Classical Concepts of Reaction Range
Developmental Concepts of Gene-Environment Transaction
Multiple Processes May Simultaneously Differentiate Skill by Genotype
Growing Differences Between Genotypes Over Time Imply Increasing Heritability
The “Cafeteria” of Experience and Gene × Environment Interaction
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
Note
References
Chapter 15: The Etiology of Reading and Math Expertise: The
Western Reserve Reading and Math Project
Introduction
Overview of the Western Reserve Reading and Math Project
Quantitative Genetic Methodology: The Twin Study Design
Conclusions
Acknowledgement
References
Chapter 16: Genetic Influences on Music Expertise
Introduction
Do Genes Contribute? General Findings Suggesting a Biological Basis for Musicality
Quantifying Genetic Influences on Individual Differences in Music Expertise in the General Population – Heritability and Twin Studies
Gene Finding Studies—Getting at the Exact Genes
Conclusions—Importance of Genes and Environment in Musicality and Expertise in General
References
Chapter 17: The Molecular Genetic Basis of Music Ability and
Music-Related Phenotypes
Introduction
Music Perception
Music Production Abilities
Music Culture
Summary
Note
References
PART IV: Integrative Models
Chapter 18: Expertise Development from an IMTD Perspective
Introducing the DMGT
Introducing the DMNA and IMTD
Summing Up
Note
References
Chapter 19: Creativity and Expertise: Creators Are Not Equivalent
to Domain-Specific Experts!
Introduction
Creativity
Expertise
Creativity-Expertise Relations
Discussion
Notes
References
Chapter 20: Computational Models of Expertise
Introduction
Some Definitions
Strengths of Computational Modeling
Criticisms of Computational Modeling
Mathematical Models of Expert Behavior
Models of Heuristic Search
Chunking Networks
Production Systems
Connectionist Models
The CHREST Model
Conclusions
Note
References
Chapter 21: The Multifactorial Gene-Environment Interaction
Model (MGIM) of Expert Performance
Introduction
Main Features of the MGIM
The MGIM and Future Empirical Work on Expertise
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References
Chapter 22: The Role of Passion in the Development of Expertise:
A Conceptual Model
Introduction
The Development of Expertise
Passion as the Motor Underlying the Development of Expertise
Toward a Conceptual Model Linking Passion to Expertise Development
Applications and Future Research
Conclusion
References
Chapter 23: Play During Childhood and the Development of
Expertise in Sport
Introduction
Conceptual Framework
The Nature of Sport Play
The Nature of Structured Sport Activity
Outcomes of Deliberate Play
Determinants of Play in Youth Sport
Integration of the PAF into a Model of Children’s Deliberate Play Participation
Summary
References
PART V:
Perspectives
Chapter 24: Four Kinds of Expertise
Introduction
The Four-Way Model
Conclusion
References
Chapter 25: The Relationship Between Expertise and Giftedness:
A Talent Development Perspective
Introduction
Domain-Specific Abilities Over Time
Domains Start, Peak, and End at Different Times
The Role of Opportunity Both Given and Taken
Psychosocial Skills
Expertise Vs. Eminence
Considerations and Questions
Conclusion
References
Chapter 26: Experience, Skill Acquisition, and Deliberate Practice
Introduction
Skill Acquisition
Deliberate Practice
Issues in Assessing Deliberate Practice
What Initiates and Maintains (Motivates) Deliberate Practice?
Conclusion
References
Chapter 27: Scientific Methodology and Expertise Studies:
Massaging the Scar Tissue
Introduction
The Common Thread
Opportunity and Obligation
References
Index

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